The human brain consists of many individual parts that work together to control responses, actions, and thoughts. These together ensure proper coordination and everything that happens in the human body.
- The basal ganglia are neurons on the internal parts of the brain which are responsible for judgment, movement, and perception.
- Neurons are brain cells that act as messengers.
- These are responsible for coordinating the brain with the nervous system of the body.
- An injury to the basal ganglia has serious and long term effects on judgment perception and movement.
- A stroke of the basal ganglia particularly disrupts the flow of blood to the parts of the brain responsible for holding the basal ganglia, resulting in problems such as loss of muscle control, and no sensation of touch.
- Some people also report personality changes when a basal ganglia stroke takes place.
When the blood supply of the human body does not reach a part of the brain or when the brain burst, as a result of a blood vessel bursting, and release of excess blood in the brain tissue results in a medical emergency condition called the stroke. With the flow of blood, oxygen is transported to the entire body.
When the flow of blood to an area of the brain is restricted or deprived of oxygen, it injures the cells of the brain and they die. The deep center part of the brain has a collection of cell bodies, referred to as the basal ganglia, which acts as the message center for a range of bodily functions.
Types Of Strokes Of Basal Ganglia
Several types of basal ganglia stroke that take place all have different causes. Here is a list of the three most common basal ganglia strokes that are encountered.
1. Hemorrhagic Stroke
Up to 40% of all deaths that take place worldwide, a hemorrhagic stroke of the brain is the most common type. This occurs when blood leaks from a blood vessel or a blood vessel burst in the brain that pushes an enormous amount of blood into the brain tissues.
This finally results in swelling, pressure and ultimately damaging the brain. Most of the basal ganglia strokes are an open result from uncontrolled blood pressures.
2. Ischemic Stroke
This is a common stroke usually formed when a blood clot blocks a blood vessel that carries blood to the brain. This makes the oxygen in blood impossible to reach. This is even more common than hemorrhagic stroke resulting in about 80% of strokes overall.
3. Transient Ischemic Attack
These attacks are often referred to as mini-strokes because these attacks have stroke-like symptoms and last for a few minutes but less than 24 hours. They do not have any lasting damage and usually resolve in time. These strokes are a warning sign that any of the severe attacks may also occur in the future.
Signs And Symptoms Of Basal Ganglia Stroke
When it comes to stroke there is a common set of signs and symptoms everyone should be aware of. Recognizing these signs when they occur and take necessary steps to save a life. A typical basal ganglia stroke includes the following symptoms
- The person may seem to be droopy on have an uneven smile
- Sudden severe headaches that do not reduce with any pain killers
- The person may find it troublesome to walk and co-ordinate balance.
- The person may feel weakness in the face, either of the leg and sudden numbness in the arms
- Difficulty with vision in one or both the eyes is also common.
The other symptoms may include personality changes, tremors following stiffness in muscles that restrict movement and cause severe apathy.
Causes Of Basal Ganglia Stroke
As discussed, most of the stroke is a result of hemorrhagic stroke. They occur when an artery in the brain ruptures and pushes an enormous amount of blood in the brain tissues. This can happen if the wall of the artery becomes weak and tears and allows the blood to flow into the brain tissues.
Brain cells are more prone to damage when excess blood flow through it because they are vulnerable and small and can rupture with even the slightest pressure.
In the case of an ischemic stroke, the arteries or blood vessel supplying the blood to the brain gets narrowed or the flow of blood is blocked by a clot. In the case of an ischaemic stroke, the middle cerebral artery, a major blood vessel in the middle of the brain forms the clot and results in a stroke.
Risk Factors And Diagnosis
The hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke of basal ganglia have various risk factors that include the most common reasons which are smoking, high blood pressure and diabetes. All these three risk factors are responsible for both ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke.
Diagnosing a basal ganglia stroke is done once the symptoms are noted. The presence of any of the risk factors will also be taken into consideration and MRI of the brain or a CT scan will be advised.
This will help the doctors to get images of the brain and the blood vessels flowing blood. Once the doctor is aware of the type of stroke that you have encountered they will be able to give you the right type of treatment.
Treatment Of Basal Ganglia Stroke
With a stroke, time is a big factor. The sooner the patient is admitted to the hospital or stroke center, the better will be the diagnosis and treatment and also be able to minimize the damage of the stroke.
When you see a person experiencing abnormal changes and sudden weakness in the body, make sure to call the emergency number without delay, even if you are not sure about the type of disease affecting the patient, dial the emergency number and leave the rest of the treatment to the doctors.
For ischemic stroke, if a patient is admitted within 3 hours of the formation of a clot, a drug called the tissue plasminogen activator is given. This helps in resolving the clot and release the blood that has been deposited.
In the case of a hemorrhagic stroke, a tissue plasminogen activator is not given because it may cause dangerous bleeding episodes and potentially more brain damage. For hemorrhagic stroke, surgery is performed where excess blood is pushed out of the brain and usually involves 6 to 8 hours of surgery.
Recovery And Outlook
Stroke rehabilitation is one of the most useful ways to recover from a stroke. If your balance coordination and movements were affected, a rehab specialist will make an effort towards restoring the same position and coordination all over again.
- Speech therapists work towards improving your ability to speak through rehab. It is also possible to learn certain exercises and drills that you can do on your own. In the case of basal ganglia, stroke recovery can be complicated.
- The short-term and long-term outlook will depend on how quickly the treatment was given to the patient and how many brain neurons were lost. The brain is capable of recovering from hemorrhagic stroke as well but it takes time.
It also depends upon the treatment supplied. It's important to be patient and work closely with the health care team towards recovery, and reduce the chances of the risk factors affecting increasing chances of stroke.