We all are familiar that cancer is one of the major public health problems in both developed and developing countries. The quality of life of the patients having cancer is impaired to a great extent. Cancer is a disease which occurs when the normal cells of the body begin to grow uncontrollably and their growth is higher than the normal rate. It is a serious disease that requires an immediate action.
There are various types of cancer and most of them are common, life threatening and reduces the quality of life of the sufferer. Some of the types of cancer include:
1. Lung cancer
In the United States, lung cancer is one of the deadliest cancer throughout the world. It is a life threatening which usually occurs due to an exposure to tobacco smoke. Therefore, it is largely preventable by reducing cigarette smoking. According to the researchers, a large number of people are diagnosed with this type of cancer and it is also responsible for mortality and morbidity.
Lungs are the main organs of the body that are responsible for breathing. A human body has two lunges and each lung is made up of sections which are known as lobes. The left lung has two lobes and the right lung consists of three lobes. Lung cancer is defined as a malignant tumor which occurs in an uncontrolled way and it can occur in one or both the lungs.
Lung cancer is categorized into primary lung cancer and secondary lung cancer. Primary lung cancer is a type of lung cancer which develops in the lungs and can spread to other parts of the body such as the brain, liver, bones, and adrenal gland. Whereas, secondary lung cancer is the type of lung cancer that develops in another part of the body and then it is spread to the lungs. Some of the symptoms of lung cancer include:
- Chest pain
- Weight loss
2. Breast Cancer
Breast cancer is a type of cancer that occurs when the cells in the breast start to grow abnormally and it begins to grow out of control. Breast cancer can develop in different parts of the body, but most often it begins in the ducts that carry milk to the nipple. Breast cancer is of two types - invasive and non-invasive breast cancer. Invasive breast cancer is a type of breast cancer that has spread from either the milk ducts or the lobules into the surrounding breast tissue. Sometimes it can also spread to the lymph nodes. Invasive breast cancer is subdivided into two types:
1. Invasive ductal carcinoma - It is also known as infiltrating ductal carcinoma and a most common type of invasive breast cancer and this type of cancer develops in the milk ducts of the breast.
2. Invasive lobular carcinoma - It is a type of invasive breast cancer which develops in the lobules of the breast.
Non-invasive breast cancer is the type of breast cancer in which the tumor that develops in the breast do not spread into the surrounding tissues.
Some of the common symptoms that occur in breast cancer include:
- Swelling of the breast
- Redness of the breast
- Breast pain
- Pulling in of the nipple
3. Colorectal cancer
Colorectal cancer is one of the leading cause of death and according to the researchers, thousands of Americans die each year of a colon or rectal cancer. Colon and rectum together make up a large intestine. A colon is a large muscular pipe which is responsible for collecting and storing waste which then passes into the rectum.
Colorectal cancer occurs when there is an abnormal growth of epithelial cells which form a lining of the colon or rectum. In the case of colorectal cancer, the tumor develops within the walls of the colon or rectum tissue which are known as polyps. There are two types of polyps - malignant polyps or benign polyps. Malignant polyps are defined as cancerous polyps, whereas benign polyps are not cancerous. This means that not all polyps become cancer, some can change into cancer over time.
Cancer begins in the walls but they can grow into a blood vessel or lymph vessel and from there it can spread to other parts of the body. Most often, the symptoms of colorectal cancer depend on the size and location of cancer, but some of the symptoms that can be common in people having colorectal cancer include:
- Abdominal discomfort
- Blood in the stool
- Changes in consistency
- Changes in bowel habits
4. Prostate Cancer
In the United States, prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer that develops in men. The prostate is a gland whose main job is to make semen that carries sperm and this gland is present only in males. Prostate cancer occurs when the cells in the prostate gland start to grow uncontrollably. Most often prostate gland grows slowly and may not cause any problem. But, sometimes it grows quickly and is more likely to spread to other parts of the body and cause problems.
Prostate cancer occurs when the cells grow at a higher rate and these cells may build up to form a tumor. Most often men having prostate cancer do not experience symptom but some of the symptoms that occur in men who experience symptoms include:
- Blood in the urine
- Problems having erection
- A difficulty with urinary flow
- Burning pain while urinating
- Pain in lower back
- Pain in upper thighs