Some Commonly Occurring Mental Illnesses

A large number of people are suffering from some mental problems these days and has a low health related quality of life. In fact, according to research, the health related quality of life of people suffering from mental disorders have become a topic of public health concern across the world. 

Mental disorders affect a person significantly as they affect the overall way a person thinks, behaves, and learn. A person with mental disorder finds it difficult to function well in the society and this throws a negative impact on the health. These are the common problems that a person with mental disorders experiences, the problems vary from disease to disease and also from a person to person. 

There are many different types of mental problems that can be categorized into some types such as:

PERSONALITY DISORDERS  

In simple terms, personality can be defined as a way in which a person behaves, thinks, and reacts in different situations and conditions in everyday life. Whenever a person develops any personality disorder, the traits that defines a person works abnormally. There are different types of personality disorders and some of them include:

  • Paranoid personality disorder - It is characterized by the feeling that other people are not trustworthy and are using them. They find difficulty in confide with others and trusting them.
  • Schizoid personality disorder - It is characterized by the detachment from social relationships. Patients are emotionally cold towards others and have no interest in sexual relationships.
  • Schizotypal personality disorder - It is characterized by unusual beliefs and delusions (such as having sixth sense) which makes it difficult for them to maintain relationships.
  • Borderline personality disorder - It is characterized by sudden mood swings that can be up or down. Patients always see things in extreme, such as its all good or all bad.
  • Histrionic personality disorder - It is characterized by the attention seeking behavior. These patients seek attention from others whenever they feel that they are not receiving much attention.
  • Narcissistic personality disorder - It is characterized by an inflated sense of self importance and these people often believe that they are superior than others.
  • Avoidant personality disorder - It is characterized by the feeling of extreme sensitivity about what people think of them. These people are often shy and are more concerned about what others think about them.

ANXIETY DISORDERS

Anxiety can be defined as a feeling of extreme fear and tension which is accompanied by unwanted thoughts and uncontrolled behavior. This feeling is for a long time and significantly affects the way a person do their everyday activities. Along with fear, it is characterized by symptoms like irritability, obsessive thoughts, fatigue, lack of concentration, and problems with sleep. Anxiety disorders are of different types and some of them include:

  • Panic attack - It is characterized by the feeling of terror which comes in the form of an attack. The attack stays for several minutes and is accompanied by symptoms like nausea, chest pain, irregular heartbeat, and the feeling of numbness in the hands. Patient having panic disorder goes out of control.
  • Phobia - It is a severe form of anxiety disorder which has a strong impact on how a person live a life. Most often, it is triggered by a particular situation or an object. It is accompanied by symptoms like numbness, sweating, shaking, and shortness of breath.
  • Obsessive compulsive disorder - It is characterized by the occurrence of unwanted and uncontrolled thoughts and is accompanied by repeated actions in order to get rid of those thoughts.
  • Post traumatic stress disorder - It is characterized by emotional numbness which stays of months or for years. It is associated with major risk factors as it is an extreme case of anxiety.

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DEMENTIA 

Dementia is basically a term which is used to describe multiple disorders which affect the cells in the brain. It strongly affects the normal working life of a patient and as time progresses, this disease worsens. It is a serious and chronic disorder which and highly impairs the quality of life of a person. Dementia is categorized into many types.

  • Alzheimer’s - It is the most common type of dementia and millions of people across the world are living with this mental disorder. It occurs due to the build up of tangles of abnormal material in the center of the brain or the buildup of plaques of proteins outside the brain cells.
  • Frontotemporal dementia - It is a type of dementia which occurs when the cells in frontal and temporal lobes (the parts of the brain) are damaged. These parts are primarily responsible for planning ,multitasking and emotional response.
  • Vascular dementia - It is also a common type of dementia, following Alzheimer’s. It develops when an impairment occurs in the vascular cognitive system, resulting from reduced flow of blood in the brain.
  • Lewy body dementia - It occurs when the chemical known as alpha-synuclein gets build up in the brain and leads to the occurrence of problems with movement, behavior, and thinking.
  • Mixed dementia - It is characterized by the coexistence of alzheimer’s and vascular dementia in a same patient. It is accompanied by symptoms like difficulty concentrating, communication problems, confusion, and sudden changes in mood.

EATING DISORDERS

Eating disorders are also a mental illness. Every person has a different pattern of eating and can eat different amounts of food. But there is a difference between normal eating pattern and having eating disorders. There are three different types of eating disorder:

  • Anorexia Nervosa - In this type of disorder a person eats very less or too little and ends up with unhealthy weight loss. Patients having this disorder feels that they are fat or overweight, even though they are underweight. It is characterized by impaired cognitive system and other symptoms like problems with menstrual cycle, constipation, and dry skin.
  • Bulimia Nervosa - It is a life threatening type of disorder which is characterized by repeated episodes of binge eating. Patient having this eating disorder loses control over eating behavior and eats a large amount of food in one sitting. It is accompanied by compensatory behavior such as use of laxatives, fasting, vomiting, and exercise addiction.
  • Binge Eating Disorder - It is the most common type of eating disorder which is characterized by eating a large amount of food in one sitting, but without any compensatory behavior.

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