NSAID - the common pharmacological term that every person has come across. Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs are quite the commonest drugs that you will find in the medical stores. The term itself explains that it is used for quite common circumstances such as fever, nausea, rashes, pain, etc.. 


There can be people who might even develop an allergic attack to the common painkillers about 1% but people who have asthma but use all the drugs with caution (though cases only range up to 10%). Painkillers are mostly categorized into 3 different categories. They are:


  • NSAIDs
  • Opioids 
  • Paracetamol


The working mechanism of all three of the drug hits different. There are some painkillers that the doctor might recommend you take only for some days while others have to be used for the long term. Painkillers such as opioids should especially be taken only after the proper consultation of the doctor. 


The aim of the painkillers is for curing and soothing your pain. The pain could be because of muscle cramps, because of some stress or trauma or any other reason and could often be also associated with other symptoms as well. 


Painkillers come in various forms or substitutes. They can be taken as liquids or capsules (through the oral or sublingual method), by injecting it in your muscle directly or by the method of inserting it through your rectum. There can be different modes of administration of a drug and each can depend on how the pain has been caused and its symptoms. 


Painkillers can also be used as a combination to produce a certain drug interaction or effect. For example, paracetamol is often combined with codeine which is often used for the treatment of muscular aches in adults. 


Below are some facts about some of the pain relievers that you are yet to discover:


  • Most Common Prescribed Opioids: Some of the most commonly prescribed opioids are codeine, fentanyl, morphine, hydrocodone, and oxymorphone. Opioids whether strong or weak should only be taken after the proper consultation of the drugs. Opioids should only be taken after the consultation session of a doctor because it may lead to adverse drug effects. 

    Simple opioids or weak opioids are easily available in the offline and online drug stores and local pharmacies but the strong opioids are difficult to find. Though these pain relievers work very effectively, there have been more than 20,000 deaths which have been reported due to prescription drug and the cause was opioids addiction.


  • Except for Aspirin Most Of The NSAIDs Come With A Warning: The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as Ibuprofen come with a warning such as damage in the kidney and high blood pressure. Some of the NSAIDs can even cause an allergy.

    That is the reason NSAIDs should be only confirmed with a medical professional and then only taken. Vioxx and Bextra are two of the drugs that were even eliminated from the markets due to their cardiovascular drugs. There are some risks that every drug carries except the aspirin which does not cause any life-threatening risks. 


  • There Are Times When Acetaminophen Should Not Be Used: The second term for Acetaminophen is Paracetamol. This drug is mostly used for the cases of fever and is an antipyretic drug. This drug should not be used for patients who have liver disease. 

    Toxicity can occur when a patient overdoses on the Acetaminophen. If a patient doses more than 12 grams of in a single day it will lead him to this drug toxicity. If it is less than 10 grams a day in one single dose then the drug toxicity is a lot likely to occur. 


  • Accident Can Happen: According to the Food and Drug Administration, more than 4,000 milligrams is consumed by an adult every day. About one tablet can contain 500 mg. Paracetamol (also termed as Acetaminophen) can even be the reason for disease to even be the reason of your liver damage. 

    The poisoning or overdosing of the Acetaminophen can lead to chronic damage to the liver. Some reported cases also state that even kidney diseases or damage can also occur. Other toxicity can also occur:

    • Abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant
    • Change in the biochemical marker in the functioning of the liver
    • Acute kidney liver
    • Metabolic acidosis
    • Necrosis of the liver
    • Low blood sugar
    • Multiple organ failure
    • Swelling of the brain 
    • Sepsis
    • Encephalopathy


Working Mechanism Of The Non-Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs

The work of NSAID is by the inhibition of the cyclooxygenase enzymes. The COX-1 or the COX-2 in the NSAID work with the synthesizing of the mediators of the primary biological agents which are the prostaglandins. These prostaglandins are involved in the inflammatory action which helps in the clotting of the blood. 


The mechanism of action by the enzyme inhibition. It is used for the antithrombosis action, controlling the inflammatory reaction, pain, and fever. 


Some Of The Popular NSAIDs

There are many drugs that come under this specific classification. Some of the common NSAIDs are:


  • Tolmetin
  • Sulindac
  • Salsalate
  • Oxaprozin
  • Naproxen
  • Ketorolac
  • Nabumeton
  • Ketoproden
  • Ibuprofen
  • Diclofenac
  • Aspirin
  • Etodolac
  • Indomethacin 


Side Effects Of The Drugs

Some of the common side effects or the adverse drug effects are:


  • Drowsiness
  • Nausea
  • Chronic headache
  • Vomiting
  • Dizziness
  • Diarrhea
  • Rashes
  • Constipation
  • Decreased appetite


Side effects that can even be life-threatening:


  • Failure of the kidney
  • Failure or disease in the kidney 
  • Ulcers
  • Bleeding in the surgery or injury for hours


Interactions With The NSAIDs

These drugs can even decrease the flow of blood to the kidneys or even eliminate substances such as lithium or methotrexate from the blood. Your blood can undergo some changes after the intake of such drugs. Your blood might not be able to create or undergo the process of clotting. This happens when the drug is used for a very long time.


Patients who suffer from hypertension may also suffer from elevation in blood pressure. Patients who drink too much coffee or beverages may undergo a high risk of having ulcers in the stomachs.