The body consists of melanocytes present on the skin. They are capable of mutating and becoming cancerous. When the sites become cancerous, they produce Melanoma a form of skin cancer. Most pigment cells are found under the skin but Melanoma can also occur in the eyes which are referred to as ocular Melanoma.
Not only the eyes but the intestines may also get affected by the mutation of melanocytes. People with dark skin are at a greater risk of having melanocyte mutation in the intestine. Other types of skin cancer include basal cell skin cancer and squamous cell cancer. Melanoma is another type of skin cancer, however less prevalent than the squamous cell and the basal cell skin cancer.
Melanoma is capable of spreading even by direct contamination.
Stages of Melanoma
Cancer diseases are categorized as per stages to indicate how far the cell has mutated and how far they have become malignant. This helps doctors to find a suitable treatment. Melanoma is categorized into five stages particularly from stage 0 to stage 4-
- Stage 0 - It determines the spread of Cancer to the outermost layer of the skin is known as Melanoma in situ.
- Stage 1 Melanoma - This is where cancer spreads up to 2 millimeters thick inside the skin. It does not spread to the lymph nodes or other sites, or it may or may not be ulcerated and capable of being treated with conventional therapies. It also restores a person’s normal health
- States 2 Melanoma - Here the cancer is a minimum of 1.01 millimeter thick and can extend up to 4 millimeters. The ulceration may or may not be present, however, it has not spread to the lymph nodes or other sites to cause malignancy to develop
- States 3 Melanoma - Here cancer has spread to one or more lymph node or nearby lymph channel but not too very distant sites. It is still possible to be treated and original cancer may no longer be visible. If the original cancer is capable of being visible it is surely thicker than 4 millimeters and can also be highly ulcerated.
- Stage 4 Melanoma - This is where the cancer cells has already spread to the distance lymph nodes or organ, such as the brain lungs and liver and have caused the cancer of lungs liver and brain, along with affecting the entire skin of the body. At this stage, it is very rare for a person to survive and usually results in a fatal situation
Types Of Melanoma
There Are Particularly Four Types Of Melanoma They Include The Following
- Superficial spreading Melanoma which is the most common and primarily appears on the Limbs and trunks of a person. The cells tend to grow slowly at first and afterward spread across the entire skin area.
- Nodular Melanoma is a type of skin cancer appears that on the neck, head and trunk of a person. It grows quickly more than any other type of cancer and usually turns red rather than black as it grows.
- Acral lentiginous melanoma is one of the rarest types of skin cancer that can affect a person. It appears on the soles of the feet and the nails and also on the hands. It is more likely in people who are of dark complexion and do not experience much sun exposure
Causes Of Melanoma
The exact cause of Melanoma is still attributed to a non-healthy living and a great exposure to the sun. People with certain types of skin are even more prone to develop Melanoma and the factors of skin cancer may include the following:
- The high number of moles present on the skin
- pale skin
- minimal sun exposure
- High freckles density
- The tendency to develop freckle after minimum Sun exposure
- age of a person
- risk increases with age, or light-colored hair
- five or more atypical moles present on the entire body
The presence of actinic lentigines is usually grey-brown spots, also known as sunspots liver spots or age spots.
A person who has previous experience of having an organ transplant, or a family history of skin cancer of the above-mentioned risk factors responsible for causing skin cancer. Excessive exposure to the sun's ultraviolet radiation and tanning beds are a great source of ultraviolet radiation.
Symptoms Of Skin Cancer Melanoma
Detecting Melanoma in its early stages may be a great challenge. It is important to check the skin actively for any signs of change. Alterations in the appearance of the skin and indicators of Melanoma are used in the Diagnostic process skin changes may be an indication of skin cancer can include the following:
The most common type of skin cancer is Melanoma. The seriousness of melanoma is because it is capable of spreading. The risk factors of melanoma include the most common one being overexposure to the sun.
- A spot of source that becomes painful tender for itchy
- A flat red spot that is dry scaly
- Sudden rough skin
- changes or formation of a new mole on a current spot
- a current mole formed like a red lump that looks waxy, shiny, smooth or pale
An examination called the ABCD examination is performed to determine or reveal the suspected skin cancer. 5 simple characteristics that include:
- metric border
- diameter and
- evolving characteristics of a new change on the skin
These are taken into consideration and for the treatment of asymmetric moles that are typically shapeless. They have an irregular blood border. They do not have a dark brown or grey color, however, they can range from light brown-black and even at times become a white or blue pigmentation.
Treatment And Final Outlook
Skin cancer is treated like that of other cancers, but many internal cancers are not capable of being treated completely. Skin cancer cases are treatable if diagnosed in time and it is easier to access cancer and remove it completely. Surgery is the most prominent treatment for Melanoma. It involves removing the mole for the bump that has formed on the skin.