How Sinusitis Affects An Individual?

Sinusitis is an inflammation of the sinuses that are adjacent to the nose and it is caused by the infection due to bacterial or viral. According to the research, in the United States, sinusitis affect almost 16% of the population and is responsible for millions of visits to the clinics. Although anyone can get sinusitis, young people and elderly are at high risk of suffering from sinusitis. Primarily sinusitis is of two types:

1.Acute sinusitis

Acute sinusitis is also known as a sinus infection and it is defined as inflammation and infection in one or more of the paranasal sinuses. There are multiple factors that could lead to the development of acute sinusitis. Acute sinusitis is the early stage of this disease, i.e one to four weeks after the starting of symptoms.

Most often, acute sinusitis is caused by viral upper respiratory infection, which results in inflammation to the sinus and obstruction of the ostiomeatal complex. It can occur after cold when the mucus is trapped in sinuses and do not drain out, as a result, it causes bacterial growth and leads to an infection.

2. Chronic sinusitis

The exact cause of chronic sinusitis is not known, but it is believed that there are various mechanisms that can contribute to the development of chronic sinusitis such as mucociliary dysfunction, mucostasis, hypoxia, and release of microbial products. Unlike acute sinusitis, the role of ostiomeatal complex is uncertain. According to the studies, chronic sinusitis is associated with allergic rhinitis in almost 40% to 84% of adult patients. Generally, sinusitis is considered to be chronic sinusitis when the symptoms of sinusitis last for more than 8 weeks.  

Both acute and chronic sinusitis are common and are associated with significant morbidity. The symptoms that occur in sinusitis such as nasal pressure, nasal congestion, a runny nose, and fever, run their course in a few days. However, if symptoms persist, it indicates the development of a bacterial infection or acute sinusitis. If sinusitis occurs frequently or lasts for more than three months it indicates the development of chronic sinusitis.  

Symptoms of sinusitis

Some of the symptoms of sinusitis are as follows:

  • Nasal congestion
  • Difficulty breathing through the nose
  • Bad breath
  • Discolored mucus from the nose
  • Fatigue
  • Facial pressure and pain

Natural ways to treat sinus problems

Some of the natural ways to treat sinus problems are as follows:

1.Drink plenty of fluid - Increasing intake of fluid is one of the most effective ways to treat sinus problems. Drinking warm water, or tea helps to thin and loosen mucus. This helps to drain away the blocked mucus faster.

2. Breathe in warm and moist air - Taking steam in warm and moist water helps to loosen the mucus and soothe the throat.

3. Take rest - Taking proper rest is essential to fight any health problem. Similarly, it is also effective in helping the body to fight infection. Taking proper rest helps to fight disease quickly.

4. Gargle - Gargle is also effective in treating the symptoms of sinus. You can use salt stirred into a glass of warm water. It can help in relieving the symptoms that occur due to sinus.

Complications of Sinusitis

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LOCAL COMPLICATION

Osteomyelitis

Osteomyelitis is a severe condition which is characterized by inflammation of the bone. It is an infection of the bone and bone marrow and any type of pathogen can lead to the development of osteomyelitis. Osteomyelitis is classified into two - acute, subacute, and chronic.

  • Acute osteomyelitis - It means when the episodes of this disease last for less than two weeks.
  • Subacute osteomyelitis - It means when the episodes of this disease last for two to six weeks.
  • Chronic osteomyelitis - It means when the episodes of this disease last for more than six weeks.

There are various risk factors that are associated with osteomyelitis such as some disease like diabetes, peripheral vascular disease, and compromised immune system.

ORBITAL COMPLICATION

Preseptal cellulitis

Preseptal cellulitis is defined as an infection of the eyelid and superficial periorbital soft tissues without the involvement of the globe and orbit. One of the common cause of preseptal cellulitis is an extension of infection that is caused from the paranasal sinuses. Sinusitis is one of the common cause of the development of preseptal cellulitis.

Postseptal cellulitis

Postseptal cellulitis is a severe type of infection. It is a disease which is defined as an infectious involvement of the tissues posterior to the orbital septum and it also includes the fat and muscle within the bony orbit. It involves orbital structures and is most commonly caused by the local spread of inflammation from adjacent sinuses.

INTRACRANIAL COMPLICATIONS

The intracranial complications that are associated with sinusitis are accompanied by a wide range of symptoms such as a headache, unexplained high temperature, nausea, vomiting, and change in mental status. Most often, people having sinusitis are accompanied by a disease known as meningitis. Meningitis is a disease which is characterized by inflammation of the brain and the spinal cord membrane. It is usually caused by an infection.   

   

       

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