Hypertension or commonly known as high blood pressure is one of the diseases that is commonly found in people throughout the world. Studies have reported that billions of people throughout the world are living with high blood pressure. In fact, high blood pressure is one of the main risk factors of various chronic and life-threatening conditions and is responsible for millions of death each year.
Hypertension is defined as a condition in which the blood pressure in the body becomes higher than the normal level. Blood pressure is defined as a force of blood against the artery walls. When blood pressure is high this means that the pressure in the arteries is higher than the normal level. Most often, people do not realize that they have high blood pressure because usually hypertension is not accompanied by any early warning symptoms. This is the reason why hypertension is known as a silent killer.
According to the researchers, most of the people over 20 in the United States are living with high blood pressure and most of them are not even aware of it. Untreated high blood pressure is dangerous and is associated with the development of a wide range of diseases. High blood pressure is associated with various complications such as:
Hypertension and Coronary heart disease
Multiple studies have reported that hypertension is one of the major risk factors for the development of coronary heart disease. It has been shown that the presence of high blood pressure increases the risk of developing coronary heart disease as there is a strong correlation between the level of blood pressure in the heart and heart health.
Coronary heart disease is a cardiovascular disease which affects the blood vessels that are responsible for supplying blood to the heart muscles. It occurs when the plaque builds up in the coronary arteries, arteries that supply oxygen rich blood to the heart. Plaque reduces the flow of blood to the heart when the flow of blood is partially blocked, it is known as angina and when the flow of blood is completely blocked, it causes a heart attack.
Left ventricular hypertrophy is one of the most important risk factors of the development of coronary heart disease and left ventricular hypertrophy is strongly associated with an elevated blood pressure. Left ventricular hypertrophy is an enlargement and thickening if the walls of the heart muscles. High blood pressure affects the wall of the heart and causes enlargement that affects the way heart pump blood.
Hypertension and Eye disorders
High blood pressure is not not associated with heart but its effects can be seen on the eye as well. When the eyes are affected due to high blood pressure, it is known as hypertensive retinopathy. Retinal vein occlusion is one of the most common eye disorder and there an association between high blood pressure and the development of this eye disorder. Retinal vein occlusion is a condition which is defined as a swelling of the center of the retina. It is characterized by the dilated and tortuous retinal veins, retinal hemorrhages, cotton-wool spots, and edema of the macula and optic disc.
High blood pressure can also be responsible for the development of diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy is a vascular disorder of the retina which occurs in the patients having diabetes. Diabetic retinopathy is one of the complications of diabetes mellitus. There are prove that suggest that high blood pressure can cause diabetic retinopathy. High blood pressure can increase the retinal blood flow and leads to damage to the retinal vascular autoregulation. Also, high blood pressure increases the stress of the vessel wall that causes damage to retinal vascular endothelial.
Hypertension and kidney disease
High blood pressure is one of the diseases that can cause damage to the kidneys and develops chronic kidney disease. In fact, high blood pressure is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease. Kidneys are one of the main organs of the body that is required for life and whenever anything happens to kidneys, it causes a problem. Chronic kidney disease is a condition in which kidneys fail to function normally.
When high blood pressure is left untreated, over time it causes damage to the blood vessels in the body which leads to decrease in the blood supply to all the important organs of the body, including kidneys. The primary function of kidneys is to remove waste and unwanted fluid from the body. High blood pressure can also damage the tiny filtering units of the body which affect the functioning of the kidney, results in incapability of kidney to remove waste and extra fluid from the blood. The extra fluid in the body can further increase the blood pressure and the risk of complications.
Hypertension and the brain
The normal functioning of the brain is highly dependent on the vascular system. The cognitive function depends on the brain’s blood vessels and when the brain’s blood vessels are damaged due to any reason, cognitive function is interrupted. High blood pressure is one of the causes of damage to the brain’s blood vessels. Researchers have suggested that an elevated blood pressure for a long time can trigger the symptoms of Dementia. Dementia is a disease which is a serious mental disorder that severely affects the way an individual think and behave. It also affects the memory of an individual. Dementia is of many types and vascular dementia is closely linked with high blood pressure.
Vascular dementia is a condition in which a patient experience cognitive impairment due to the damage or reduced blood flow to the brain. High blood pressure can have a serious impact on the blood vessels of the brain.