Know about common vision disorders

Every year a large number of people suffer from eye disorders and eye disorders highly increase the risk of vision impairments. The consequences of these disorders have a significant impact on an individual. There are many eye disorders and some of them are as follows:

1. Retinal detachment

Retina plays an important role in vision and it is present on the back wall of the eyes. It is responsible for absorbing the light and converting it into the signal which is sent to the brain. Retinal detachment is a serious condition that occurs when the retina separates from its original place. The quick treatment of this condition is extremely important as if it is left untreated it can lead to the loss of vision. In order to function properly, the retina needs to be attached to its original position. The back of the eye is filled with the gel which is known as vitreous and with an advancing age, this gel changes into a liquid and starts to shrink. This leads to the detachment of the retina. Also, retinal detachment can occur due to the hole in the retina that allows fluid to leak between the retinal layers and this causes the retina to detach. Other risk factors that are associated with this eye disorder include diabetic retinopathy, smoking, and glaucoma. Some of the symptoms of retinal detachment include floaters, dark shadow, flashing lights, and blurred vision.

2. Anterior Uveitis

Anterior uveitis is an inflammatory condition that affects the front of the eye. It is also known as iritis because it affects the iris which is the colored part of the eye. It occurs when the uvea which is the middle layer of the eye becomes inflamed. Due to an inflammation, cells collect and floats around the front chamber of the eyes and leads to blurred vision. The symptoms of uveitis are generally the pain, red eyes, reduced vision, and sensitivity to light. The exact cause of this condition is unknown but it can occur without any association with the illness or it can also occur due to an infection. Anterior Uveitis is of two types:

  • Acute Anterior Uveitis - The symptoms of acute anterior uveitis include aching and painful red eye which becomes worse in the light or while reading.
  • Chronic Anterior Uveitis - In chronic anterior uveitis, the eyes are not red and are usually pain free. Usually, it has no symptoms but sometimes it may cause blurred vision.

3. Blepharitis

Blepharitis is a distressing condition that causes chronic inflammation of the eyelids. Eyelids contain glands that make oil and keep the eyes moist but in blepharitis, these glands are blocked and causes dry sore eyes and irritated eyelids. Other symptoms of this condition include swelling and redness of eyelids, blurred vision, sensitivity to light, loss of eyelashes and small ulcers on the eyelids. This disease can affect any person of any age but it is more common in people who have skin conditions such as eczema, acne or those who suffer from diseases like asthma. Blepharitis is mainly of three types:

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  • Anterior Blepharitis - This type of blepharitis affects the front of the eyelids around the eyelashes and it may also affect the scalp, face, and ears.
  • Posterior Blepharitis - This type of blepharitis affects the back of the eyelids around the meibomian glands.
  • Mixed Anterior and Posterior blepharitis - This type of blepharitis is a mixture of the other two types of blepharitis.

4. Age related macular degeneration

Age related macular degeneration is a common eye disorder and one of the leading cause of vision loss among older people. It is an untreatable disease that makes it difficult for a person to read, recognize things and other tasks that require hand eye coordination. It can cause central vision loss and it severely affects the quality of life. Age related macular degeneration causes damage to the macula which lies in the center of the retina and plays an important role in the sharp and central vision. The effect of this eye disorder varies from person to person, for one person it may progress slowly, whereas in another it progresses faster. As this condition progresses, it leads to blurred vision. Advancing age is the most common risk factor that is associated with the development of age related macular degeneration but there are several other factors that can cause this eye disorder such as smoking, genetics, and nutrition.

5. Chalazion

A chalazion is characterized as a red and tender lump in the eyelid. It occurs due to the chronic inflammation of the meibomian gland which is the oil producing gland in the eyelid. It can be found on the upper and the lower eyelid that can appear suddenly or can take a time to grow. A person suffering from chalazion are at high chances of experiencing symptoms like painless swelling on the eyelids, heaviness on the eyelids, redness, tenderness and increased tearing. A large chalazion is associated with several complications like it can cause astigmatism. Astigmatism is a defect in the lens of the eye that can lead to impaired vision. It is one of the leading cause of blindness worldwide.

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