Ovulation is that phase of the menstrual cycle in women in which the release of egg from one of the ovaries takes place. Generally, ovulation takes place once in a month until menopause, apart from the time when a woman is pregnant or breastfeeding.
Many women experience pain and discomfort during ovulation and the pain can vary to a great extent from one woman to another. Although ovulation pain is normal, prolonged ovulation pain can be a sign of an underlying condition. In most cases, ovulation pain does not mean that something is wrong but when it becomes prolonged, consulting a gynecologist is advisable.
Symptoms of ovulation pain
- Pain in the lower abdomen
- Pain occurring two weeks before menstruation
- Pain that switches from one side to another
- Pain that can last for any length
Normally, ovaries produce many follicles which contain immature egg and at the end, only one follicle survives till maturity. Ovulation pain is caused by expanding follicle stretching the membrane of the ovary. Another possible cause of ovulation pain is that when an egg is burst from a follicle, it causes bleeding that can irritate abdominal lining and triggers the pain.
Sometimes, ovulation pain can be a result of some underlying medical condition that needs your attention. Some of the medical condition are as follows:
Salpingitis is a serious disorder that is characterized by the inflammation of the fallopian tube and is accompanied by symptoms like lower abdominal direct tenderness, adnexal tenderness, and pain on motion of cervix or uterus. These are the characteristic symptoms of salpingitis, some other symptoms that might occur in patients include fever, nausea, vomiting, pain that comes and goes during periods, and lower back pain.
Salpingitis is caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Most often this infection begins in the vagina and then from there it ascends to the fallopian tube. This infection can spread to lymph nodes and this is why it can lead to the occurrence of infection in other parts of the body as well.
Endometriosis is a common problem in women these days and almost one in every woman of reproductive age is struggling with endometriosis. Endometriosis is a medical condition in which the tissue that forms the lining of uterus lies outside the uterus, typically in the pelvis. This endometrial tissue leads to changes that cause pain and infertility.
The exact cause of endometriosis is not known but it is believed that during each menstrual period, the uterine lining and blood are shed through the cervix, into the vagina. Sometimes, some of these tissues enter the pelvis through the fallopian tube. The most common symptom of endometriosis a long term pelvic pain that most commonly occur during the menstruation.
Ovarian cysts are characterized by the development of fluid filled sac in or on an ovary. Ovarian cysts are very common and are of different types - functional cysts, teratoma, cystadenoma, endometrioma. The two most common functional cysts are:
1. Follicle cysts - These cysts have no symptoms. During the normal menstrual cycle, the eggs grow inside the follicle. Normally when egg matures, follicles break but when follicle fails to break, it develops follicle cysts.
2. Corpus luteum cysts - When the follicle breaks, the empty follicle shrinks and form a mass, known as the corpus luteum. When the follicle sac fails to shrink, it causes corpus luteum cysts. These cysts are accompanied by pain.
Appendicitis is an abdominal problem which is defined as an inflammation of the appendix. Appendix lies in the large intestine in the lower right area of the abdomen. The inside of appendicitis is known as the appendiceal lumen. Appendicitis occurs when an obstruction or blockage in the appendiceal lumen. The backup of mucus in the appendiceal lumen causes bacteria to normally live inside the appendix to multiply. This causes inflammation in the appendix.
The blockage of the appendiceal lumen can have many sources such as stool that clog the appendiceal lumen when an infection in the gastrointestinal tract leads to an enlargement of lymph tissues in the wall of the appendix, or trauma to the abdomen.
Chronic pelvic inflammatory disease
Chronic pelvic inflammatory disease is defined as an infection of the upper genital tract in females and upper genital tract involves the combination of the uterus, endometrium, ovaries, fallopian tubes, pelvic peritoneum, and adjacent tissues. Usually, pelvic inflammatory disease usually develops from an infection ascending from endocervix causing endometritis, salpingitis, parametritis, and oophoritis.
Chronic pelvic inflammatory disease is accompanied by a wide range of symptoms such as heavy vaginal discharge, pain in lower abdomen, fever, problems with urination, and abnormal bleeding during menstruation. In patients having chronic pelvic inflammatory disease ovulation pain is a common symptom.
Gastroenteritis is a problem which is characterized by the irritation and inflammation of the stomach lining and intestines. Gastroenteritis is one of the common infections of bowel that causes diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. Gastroenteritis causes symptoms like chills, headache, muscle aches, and fatigue.
In most cases, gastroenteritis is caused by a virus. Bacteria, toxins, and parasites also can also be the cause gastroenteritis. Gastroenteritis is a very contagious disease that can be spread through direct contact. Direct contact with an infected person is a prime route of this infection. Other than this Eating or drinking contaminated food and water, or touching contaminated surfaces or objects are some other sources that through which an infection can be spread from one person to another.