We all aware of the negative health benefits of an individual. Smoking is one of the preventable causes of death across the world, particularly in the United States. It is estimated that each year thousands of people in the United States die due to cigarette smoking.
Smoking is one of the major cause of cancer of the lungs, mouth, esophagus, throat, and many different types of cancer. Lung cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in which approximately 90% of people die. Tobacco consumption and cigarette smoking are the major causes of the development of lung cancer.
Lung cancer is a life threatening cancer which occur when the cells in the lungs starts to grow uncontrollably. Lung cancer is one of the most common types of cancer which is associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Lungs play many important functions in the body. It helps to bring oxygen to other organs and tissues in the body and also helps to take out carbon dioxide out of the body.
Lung cancer can be categorized into two - primary lung cancer and secondary lung cancer. A condition when cancer begins in the lungs and is then spread to other parts of the body, it is known as primary lung cancer. On the other hand, a condition when cancer begins in another part of the body and is then spread to the lungs, it is known as secondary lung cancer.
Small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer are the two types of lung cancer. Small cell lung cancer is not a common type which begins in the middle of the lungs and is more aggressive in nature as compared to non-small cell lung cancer. Also, small cell lung cancer spreads quickly.
Non small cell lung cancer is the most common type of lung cancer which can begin anywhere in the lungs. Non-small cell lung cancer is sub-divided into different types, namely, adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and large cell carcinoma. Adenocarcinoma starts in the cells that produce mucus. Squamous cell carcinoma starts in the cells that line the airways. Large cell carcinoma can start anywhere in the lungs except the cells the produce mucus and cells that line the airways.
A large number of studies have reported that cigarette consumption is the primary cause of lung cancer development, especially in men. The correlation between cigarette smoking and lung cancer has been proven by many people. The relationship between cigarette smoking and lung cancer is stronger for squamous cell and small cell types than the adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma.
More than 4000 bioactive chemical compounds are present in cigarette smoke, of which many are carcinogens. Nicotine and tar are the most recognized carcinogens present in cigarette smoke. Nicotine damages the DNA in the body which plays an important role in transferring genetic messages to every cell of the body. Whenever any damage is caused to DNA, it can lead to uncontrollable growth of cells which results in the development of cancer.
Environmental cigarette smoke exposure has also been shown to cause carcinoma. Exposure to smoke alters the risk of lung cancer. It has been shown in multiple studies that non-smokers who are exposed to cigarette smoke have some metabolites of tobacco carcinogens. The most common histological type of cancer among non-smokers exposed to environmental smoke is squamous cell lung cancer.
Multiple studies also suggest that second hand smoke is also responsible for the development of lung cancer. Although the concentration of chemicals in secondhand smoke is less, the risk of developing lung cancer persists.