Understanding three most common types of cancer

Now a days, cancer has become a common problem. Every other day we hear of this disease from one person to another. Cancer is a life threatening disease and it can have a significant impact on an individual. The human body consists of the large number of cells and when the cells of any part of the body begins to grow uncontrollable, it leads to the development of cancer. There are multiple types of cancer and the three most common types of cancer are as follows:

LUNG CANCER

Lung cancer is one of the most common and deadliest cancers of all times. Each year, a large number of people are diagnosed with it. The lungs are the primary organ required for breathing and the lung cancer begins when the cells in the lungs grow out of control and lead to the formation of tumor, and lesion. It is characterized by symptoms like a cough, dyspnea, wheezing, weight loss, loss of appetite, and chest pain. There are two types of lung cancer:

  • Small cell lung cancer - This type of lung cancer begins in the middle of the lungs and it spread very easily. It is an aggressive type of lung cancer and it progresses very quickly.
  • Non-small cell lung cancer - This type of lung cancer can begin anywhere in the lungs and are often known as cancerous.

Carcinogens are considered to be the most common cause of lung cancer and it is most commonly found in cigarette smoke. Carcinogens can cause damage to the DNA. Other than cigarette smoking carcinogens are also found in many environmental exposures. According to the research, more than 85% of total cases of lung cancer are due to cigarette smoking. Second hand smoke can also be responsible for the development of lung cancer.

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BREAST CANCER

Breast cancer is a type of cancer which occur when the cells in the breast tissue grow and divide without any control. Breast cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer related deaths in women and it occurs frequently in women over the age of 50. Changes in the breast are the most common symptom of breast cancer is the changes in the breast such as the presence of the lump, change to the nipple, and discharge from the nipple. Breast cancer is of two types:

  • Non-invasive breast cancer - Non-invasive breast cancer is the earliest stage of breast cancer, means that it has not spread beyond the ducts or lobules where cancer began.
  • Invasive breast cancer - Invasive breast cancer is a type of cancer which occur when the abnormal cells from inside the milk ducts or lobules spread to nearby breast tissues. In this case, cancer cells can travel from breast to other parts of the body.

Generally, the tumors in the breast tend to grow slowly and it may take about ten years to feel the lump in the breast. The cells can grow out of control before any symptom of breast cancer.

COLORECTAL CANCER

Colorectal cancer is one of the leading cause of death for both men and women. The colon belongs to the large intestine and the walls of the colon have four main layers, namely mucosa, submucosa, muscularis propria, and serosa. Colorectal cancer begins on the inner lining of the colon and it is characterized by the overgrowth of the cells in the lining of the colon and it is known as polyps. All polyps are not cancerous.

Colorectal cancer can be severe and it is accompanied by a large number of symptoms such as constipation, unexplained weight loss, a sudden change in bowel habits, weakness, and fatigue. Colorectal cancer starts in the innermost layer and can grow outward to all the other layers. When the cancer cells are in the lymph nodes, they can grow into the blood vessels. They can further travel to nearby lymph nodes or to other parts of the body. There are multiple risk factors for colorectal cancer such as age, genetics, diabetes, obesity and many more. Most often, people who are old are at high risk of developing colorectal cancer.

               
 
 
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