Schizophrenia is a severe brain disorder that has a major impact on how a person thinks, feels and behave. It is a chronic disorder that is not quite common among people but, it can be very disabling. It involves a wide range of characteristic features and some of them include:
- A lack of interest
- Problems with concentration
- A feeling of disconnection with people
- Develop an extreme fear
- Lack of drive
Most often, the symptoms of schizophrenia begin between the ages of 16 and 30, but sometimes it can occur in children too. It is believed that men are more likely to develop this disorder as compared to women. The symptoms of this disease are disruptive and can have a major impact on day to day life and affect the everyday working such as going to work or maintaining relationships. Mainly the symptoms of schizophrenia are categorized into two - positive symptoms and negative symptoms.
- Positive symptoms - In this type of the symptoms of schizophrenia, patients are involved in some strange things such as strange thinking, hallucination, delusion and many more.
- Negative symptoms - In this type of the symptoms of schizophrenia, patients lack emotional responses. Negative symptoms are the most commonly occurring symptoms.
Some of the positive symptoms include:
Hallucinations are the sensory experiences that can occur in any of the five senses of the body, that is vision, taste, smell, hearing, and touch. Hallucination is a term which is used when a person sees, hear, smell, taste or feel things that are not in reality. For example, auditory hallucinations, which is the most common type of hallucination in schizophrenia and in this, patients usually hear the voice of things or people that are not present in reality.
Delusion is defined as a neurological disorder which is characterized by false belief prosecution or feeling of being out of control. Patients generally believe things that are not true and he or she is fully convinced that whatever they feel is right. Sometimes people having delusion feels that they are someone else such as some famous historical figure. In some situations, patients might also feel that someone is trying to hurt them.
Thought disorders are defined as a condition in which patients have an unusual way of thinking such as they always think something that is odd and illogical. They find it difficult to organize their thoughts and end up thinking something that has no sense. Patients having thought disorder often use words that have no meaning. Thought disorders include thought blocking in which, a patient suddenly stops talking and feels that their thought has been taken.
4. Movement disorder
Movement disorder is characterized as a condition in which patients repeatedly do things. It means that a patient with movement disorder repeats certain emotions again and again. Also, movement disorder is sometimes accompanied by a situation known as catatonia, in which a patient does not make anybody movement or respond to people. Catatonia is a rare condition but is a serious issue.
Some of the negative symptoms include:
2.Reduced feeling of pleasure
3.Difficulty doing activities
4.Reduced expression of emotions
Sometimes people suffering from schizophrenia also experience some cognitive symptoms and the severity of these symptoms can vary greatly from one patient to another. For some patients of schizophrenia, the cognitive symptoms can be mild, for other patients the symptoms can be severe. The cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia are characterized by changes in memory and in other aspects of thinking. Most often, these symptoms are detected when certain tests are conducted. Some other cognitive symptoms include:
1. Difficulty in making decision.
2. Difficulty in learning the information
3.Problems with concentration
Causes of Schizophrenia
Various researches have been conducted in order to understand the cause of schizophrenia and it was observed that various factors contribute to the development of schizophrenia such as genetics, different brain structure, and environmental factors. Some studies suggest that the cause of this disease can be genetic, means that a person is likely to develop this disease if their parents or siblings have schizophrenia. Although it is not the only cause, it can be one of the causes. Other cause may include the involvement of certain biochemical substances in the brain.